The method for fitness assessment
Fitness Score device provides you with a powerful tool for fitness evaluation that helps the personal trainer to design an individual program, track the client’s progress and improve his or her fitness score. The assessment is based on Spectral analysis of R-R intervals Variability with recognition of Functional Capacity and Adaptability levels by new patented method and algorithms ( US patent # 8,682,421 B2 ) using very famous in the Artificial Intelligence field, the Theory of the Frames by Dr. Marvin Minsky [ MIT 1974 ]. At this moment we must provide short introduction into the field of R-R intervals Variability widely known as Heart Rate Variability, because for Fitness evaluation as well as for Autonomic assessment no body analysed Variability of the Heart Rate, most of the scientists and manufacture companies analysed only R-R intervals derived from ECG reading. Unfortunately some companies instead of R-R intervals analysed time-interval between each Heart Beat derived from photopletizmography method (PPG method ), which very good for measure just Heart Rate, but absolutely not appropriate for Spectral analysis, because by PPG method imposible by definition, accurately recognize High Frequency modulation into Sinoatrial node ( S-A node ) and as result any devices used for Autonomic assessment or Fitness evaluation PPG method, can not be qualify as precise instrument. In matter of fact, even MEDICARE do not pay for Autonomic Function testing if it’s based on PPG. For Fitness Score application we strongly recommend to use Polar devices actually any of the follow: H6, H7, H9 or H10, because Polar belt produce R-R intervals derived from ECG and moreover provide sampling Rate – 2000 samples per sec, which is excellent from accuracy point of view.
Assessment based on R-R intervals Variability analysis is scientifically proven to monitor functional integrity of the body and give an accurate fitness evaluation. Please note that the results of the evaluation should be interpreted by a qualified fitness professional depending on each individual case.
The express fitness test
The test takes only 3-5 minutes and can be performed anytime, anywhere: the client is simply required to rise from lying to standing position and to do Deep Breathing in sitting. After this short test, the results are immediately displayed on the screen.
During the test, the R-R intervals Variability data is recorded and displayed in the special graph, called Rhythm graphic strip, or rhythm gram, shown below.
Each vertical blue line corresponds to the interval between two consecutive heartbeats: the length of the line reflects the length of the interval, in seconds. During the test, the blue lines are added on the horizontal axis and form the rhythm graphic strip. This graph shows one’s heart rate fluctuations during the whole test or one’s R-R intervals Variability wave portrait. The fitness test, called Orthotest includes 4 stages:
1. the Supine stage, when the client is lying on his or her back;
2. the Transition period, during which the client is changing position from lying to standing;
3. the Upright stage, when the client is quietly standing for 1-2 minutes.
4. the Deep Breathing stage, when client sitting and perform deep but slowly breathing
On the picture of the rhythmogram you can see four regions that reflect four stages of the test.
QUANTITATIVE FITNESS EVALUATION BASED ON R-R INTERVALS VARIABILITY ANALYSIS
The major approach of Functional capacity assessment is based on idea of optimal relationship between all spectral function components calculated by Spectral analysis. Below you can see left side Spectral Function look like Optimal relationship between Low Frequency and High Frequency components. The algorithm calculated discrepancy between Optimal variability and actual case by method described in US Patent mentioned above. Physiological approach of Functional Capacity level is based on idea of balancing SNS and PSNS activity levels during Orthostatic intervention. In case if Autonomic Nervous System can properly maintain simple lying-to-Standing test without imbalance, Functional capacity level is better.
Close to Optimal relationship between High-Frequency and Low-frequency components shown on left side of Spectral function below.
Fitness Score assessment
The fitness test score is displayed on the Fitness Chart. This chart graphically represents the results of the quantitative analysis of the client’s Spectral Function of R-R intervals Variability during Orthostatic (lying-to-standing) test. This chart is the “instant snapshot”, immediately demonstrating the client’s fitness and functioning rating.
Our fitness depends on the ability to mobilize the body’s resources in response to physical stress and the fitness score is a combination of Functional Capacity and Adaptability levels.
Functional Capacity is a component of fitness that reflects how well one’s body functions as a whole system.The functional Capacity level is an indicator of general well being and may vary in response to stress and changes in lifestyle. R-R intervals Variability reflects functional integrity of the body and is an excellent indicator of the wellness level. Variations in heart rate create a wavelike structure of the rhythm graphic strip. Usually, better Functional Capacity levels result in more perceptible waves in the “wave portrait”, and case of good wellness has been called “the dance of the healthy heart” ( this sentence created by Dr. Ari Goldberger for healthy R-R intervals variability). You can compare the rhythm gram of a well-trained athlete and an untrained individual below.
Person 1 Rhythm graphic strip ( good case)
and Person 2 Rhythm graphic strip (bad case)
As you can see, in the first case, the variations in heart rate are more detectable while in the second case the rhythm graphic strip is almost flat: the beat-to-beat intervals are of the same length. A well-planned exercise program can help you achieve your optimal wellness level.
Adaptability is the measure of the efficiency of the cardiovascular system in response to physical activity. This component of fitness shows the ability of the heart and the rest of circulatory system to adapt to physical loads. The “stronger” one’s cardiovascular system, the higher the level of adaptability. This component of fitness can significantly improve with the right exercise program as well as with diet.
These two components of fitness are complementary yet essentially different and are assessed in two distinct ways. The level of Functional Capacity is determined by analysis of Spectral Function during the stationary phases of the test: the Supine , Upright and Deep Breathing stages. The level of Adaptability is determined by the transition period of the test. If you compare just the transition part of the rhythm graphic strip of a well-trained and an unfit person you can see how the two curves are different. The basic rule is that the steeper and the deeper the transitional curve, the higher the adaptability level.
Functional Capacity and Adaptability levels do not directly depend on each other. A person with low ability to adapt to physical loads may still be able to effectively manage stress in general. This combination would correspond to a low level of adaptability and a high level of Functional Capacity. However, in the majority of cases, these two aspects of fitness show a significant correlation, and higher levels of adaptability correspond to higher Functional Capacity levels, indicating higher fitness overall.
If a client is not at his or her top performance level, an effective, well-designed exercise program with a personal trainer will result in a noticeable increase in the level of adaptability, and, if combined with the healthy lifestyle, it’s improved level of Functional Capacity.
The fitness chart shows 13 levels of Functional Capacity on the horizontal axis, #1 being the highest and#13 is the lowest possible level. There are 7 levels of Adaptability, which are displayed on the vertical axis; with #1 is the highest level and 7 being the lowest possible level. The chart three distinct zones selected with different colors: the dark blue zone in the top left corner corresponds to athletic fitness levels; the light blue zone in the middle of the chart reflects average values of fitness in the general population, and the red zone in the bottom right hand corner represents very poor fitness levels that are below normal.
Your client’s fitness score is marked with the yellow dot. For example, the figure on the right shows a fitness score of a regularly exercising person. His wellness level of 6 is average among the general population. However, his adaptability level of 2 is above the average, closer to athletic levels.
Interpreting test results
The test results are displayed on the screen so that you and your client can view his or her fitness score. However, it is important that interpretation of the results is performed only by a fitness professional. The results should be interpreted depending on the client’s base fitness level, his or her age group, and health condition. The same fitness score can indicate an improvement for one person and be a sign of over-training for another individual. Individual clients should not change the training program based on the score alone, but should always consult with their personal trainer or exercise physiologist. Only a fitness specialist would be able to decide whether the training program should or should not be altered and choose an optimal solution for improving the client’s fitness.
If the fitness score is at the lowest levels of Functional capacity and adaptability (within the red zone), this is a warning sign and needs immediate attention. The client should not exercise on the day when such a result is detected and is advised to consult a fitness or health care professional before engaging in any physical activity.
Detecting over-training and under-training
The fitness assessment with Fitness Score device can detect any of these conditions that adversely affect the client’s performance and fitness level. In both over-trained and under-trained persons see the fitness score is significantly reduced and are shifted towards the bottom right-hand corner as shown on the pictures above. THE MARKERS OF OVER-TRAINING At the early stages over-training is typically marked by a reduction of the Functional capacity level with the retention of normal adaptability level. At the exhaustion stage, the reduction of the functional capacity level is usually accompanied by a significant reduction in adaptability. The figures above show an athlete’s response to over-training. You can compare his fitness scores at his normal state, at the early stage of over-training and at the state of exhaustion.
The test results should be interpreted by a fitness professional only who is qualified to make a conclusion whether the test detected over-training or under-training.
Detecting effect of other factors
A reduced fitness score can also reflect a client’s response to other common factors such as stress at work or in other aspects of life, and even to increased alcohol or coffee consumption as well as some intim activity. Compare the fitness results of the same person before and after alcohol consumption below: